Mozart Multi-book Theme Unit
created by Pamela Johnson
“The entire town came alive with musical possibilities, and it all went into his score.” --from Mozart Finds a Melody by Stephen Costanza
Mozart Unit Lapbook Components A
Mozart Unit Lapbook Components B
File Folder Game
Mozart Finds a Melody by Stephen Costanza
Wolferl: the first six years in the life of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 1756-1762 by Lisl Weil
Introducing Mozart by Roland Vernon
Masters of Music: Mozart and Classical Music by Grancesco Salvi
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart by Ernest A. Ekker
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart by Mike Venezia
Amadeus Mozart by Ibi Lepscky
Bach, Beethoven and the Boys by David W. Barber
Composer’s World: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart by Wendy Thompson
Famous Children: Mozart by Ann Rachlin
Lives of the Musicians: Good Times, Bad Times (And What the Neighbors Thought) by Kathleen Krull
Mozart by Diane Cook
Mozart by P.M. Boekhoff and Stuart Kallen
Mozart: the boy who changed the world with his music by Marcus Weeks
Mozart, the Wonder Child: A Puppet Play in three acts by Diane Stanley
Mozart Tonight by Julie Downing
Musical Genius: a Story about Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart by Barbara Allman
Play, Mozart, Play! by Peter Sis
The Life and Times of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart by John Bankston
The Magic of Mozart: Mozart, the magic flute, and the Salzburg Marionettes by Ellen Switzer
The Story of the Orchestra by Robert Levine
The World’s Great Classical Composers by Fandex Family Field Guides
Who was Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart? by Yona Zeldis McDonough
Wolfgang Amadeus Moazrt by John Malam
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart by Eric Michael Summerer
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart by Richard Tames
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: Musical Genius by Carol Greene
by Carol Green
Who Was Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart? by Yona McDonough
Books I Read Log as your read various books throughout the course of the unit.
Vocabulary & Spelling:
accompaniment – the part of the music which is not the solo but the support and background behind the soloist
allegro – a tempo (time / speed) meaning to play fast
andante – a tempo (speed) meaning to play medium slow
audience – root ‘aud’ mean to hear ; audience is the group who hears the music or show
baton – a stick used by conductors to guide the orchestra in beat, tempo, dynamics, and expression
chamber music - music to be performed in a ‘chamber’ or room by a small number of musicians usually less than 40 as compared to the larger symphony orchestras
clavier – a keyboard type instrument; clavichord, harpsichord, pianoforte (piano), organ, synthesizer
composer – one who create or write something as in music or literature
conduct - to guide or lead something as in an orchestra, band, or choir - roots: con = with duc = lead
dynamics – the range of sound from softest to loudest
form – the way a piece of music is put together; sections of the music arranged in certain orders
harmony – a pleasing combination of pitches put together
melody – a group of planned pitches put in order one at a time
minuet – music composed for a patterned dance in ¾ time for couples; later to be used solo as simply instrumental music or part of a larger piece of music
movement – a section of a larger work of music
orchestra – a group of varying instrumentalists playing music together in a harmonious way; usually contains members of the string, woodwind, brass, percussion, and keyboard families
opera – a story told by vocal and instrumental music; there is no speaking; very elaborate costumes andscenery
opera buffa (comic opera) preferred during this period, less intense stories with a happier ending than predecessor operas
organ – a member of the keyboard family
overture – a piece of music with three sections starting fast, then slow, and ending with an upbeat fastermovement or section
pianoforte – original name for our modern day piano; named pianoforte because of its ability to play the dynamics (volume of sound) piano (soft) and forte (loud) plus everything in between
practice – to try to do something over and over again to improve upon, even when it is difficult
quartet – group of four musicians playing together (quar = four)
score – the conductor’s music, contains all the parts of all the musicians so he or she may assist them in learning their parts
solo – one instrumentalist is featured alone or is dominant with an accompaniment in the background; a soloist is the featured instrumentalist
sonata or sonata allegro – a piece of music composed for a single insturment with background accompaniment; contains three or four movements (sections) which may be used as a single piece by itself; the term can also mean the first movement of an entire symphony
string quartet – four string musicians playing together – two violins, one viola, one cello
symphony – a piece of music with three or four movements (sections) – fast, slower, minuet (dance in ¾), fast
tempo – the timing of the piece of music relating to how fast or slow it should be played or sung
Parts of Speech - Verbs
Complete the Verbs & Prepositions Mini
Name some things that you can do: jump, walk, play, pull, hum, smile, kick… What type of actions did Miss Bimms do in the story? What actions did Mozart do? Other characters? These action words are called verbs. Look through the book to find verbs that were used. Here are some of the verbs describing Miss Bimm’s actions: flew, fluttered, flitted, swooped, darted, flapped, leaped, – changed, curving, ruffling, hiding, shivering, sneeze, singing (sing, sang), stretched, floated, recognized, straining, hopped, chirping, chiming, and perch. Have fun imitating her actions and others that you found in the story.
Game: Verb Actor or Artist – To play: (like Charades and Pictionary) - Think of an action verb. One person acts it out or draws it while the other players try to guess what it is. Another person picks a verb to act out or draw, and so on, until everyone has had a turn or two. You may use the attached cards or make up your own verbs!
Game: Simon Says
Younger children: play a simple game of Simon Says asking them also to name the verbs in the game. Since the book is about Mozart, try some musical actions. Have them clap a steady beat, imitate a rhythm, sing a song, tap their foot to music, pretend to play an instrument (or play a real one if you want), answer a music question or tell you something Mozart. ~ Older children: Challenge them to do harder actions. Another variety would be to give them a verb in present tense and ask them to change it to past or future. (Teacher: SS swing your right arm. Student: I will swing my right arm. I have swung my right arm.)
Present, Past, & Future Tenses
Complete Verb Tenses Mini – Cover piece: cut only on dotted lines; fold on solid lines; glue pink section only onto back page; use the top slots to write a simple definition of each; use the bottom slots to write some verbs in different tenses.
Things can take place in the future (future tense), right now (present tense), or have already happened (past tense). We can change verbs according to time by altering the verb and sometimes adding helping verbs. These changes are called verb tenses. The most common are future, present, and past. (Variations of these exist; check the links for more details.) The tense is important because it tells the listener or reader when something will happen, is happening, or has happened in the past. Some of the following verbs are in the story. Try changing verbs you used in the above games into different tenses, then write some of your choice in the mini book along with a definition of when each takes place.
I will change I am changing I changed (or I have changed)
I will hide I am hiding I hid
I will stretch I am stretching I stretched
I will float I am floating I floated
I will sneeze I am sneezing I sneezed
I will chirp I am chirping I chirped
I will fly I am flying I flew
I will sing I am singing I sang
Just For Fun: Read or tell a favorite story, but change the tenses or make them all the same or random. Does it make the story funny or confusing?
Summary of Verb Tenses Good reference for Grades 4+
Verb Tenses Tutorial (Middle school+)
Synonyms & Antonyms
Synonyms & Antonyms Mini
Dictionary & Thesaurus Minis
The Ancient Greek roots “syn” means same and “onama” or “onym” means name; therefore, “synonym” means “same name” or a word that means almost the same thing as another word. The Greek “anti” means against or opposite and “onym” means name creating the word “antonym” which means “against name” or “opposite name” or a word that means the opposite of another word.
Stephen Costanza used a variety of verbs in the story describing the movements of the bird such as: fly, dart, swoop, leap, hop, flap, flit, flutter. Some of these words have similar meanings. He used synonyms in the story to give us more details and a better picture of what is happening. The use of synonyms makes stories more interesting.
Example: He jumped over the soft green couch. He hurdled beyond the squashy emerald futon.
Do the two sentences give you a different picture in your mind? Does the second sentence tell you more about how he jumped and how far he jumped? Does the second sentence tell us more about the couch such as: the type it was, its amount of softness, and its color?
A dictionary is a reference book that gives you the meanings of a word plus more information about the word. A thesaurus is a reference book that gives you synonyms and antonyms of words. Find some synonyms of words from the following sentences about Mozart using a dictionary or thesaurus that you have at home.
1. Amadeus’ family was a talented group of musicians.
2. Mozart practiced his instruments for many hours as a child.
3. He toured throughout Europe for a number of years.
4. Mozart composed music for royalty.
Possible answers: write words in Similar Synonyms Mini
1. family = relations, relatives, kin, folks
talented = gifted, brilliant, exceptional, artistic
group = ensemble, troupe, collection
musician = performers, instrumentalists, entertainers, artists
2. practiced = rehearsed, prepared, trained on, reviewed
many = numerous, countless, several
child = youth, youngster, kid
3. tour = travel, visit
number = quantity, significant amount of, considerable, J noteworthy
4. compose = created, wrote, inscribe, produce
music = compositions, tunes, masterpieces, songs
royalty = monarchs, sovereigns, royals
Online Synonym Games
Online Antonym Games
Parts of Speech - Prepositions
Verbs & Prepositions Mini
A preposition is a part of speech that connects words and phrases in a sentence to one another. Prepositions can show relationships to objects within the sentence by location and time. Prepositions may be combined to form compound prepositions to give more detail to a sentence.
Introducing prepositions: Have your child pick a favorite stuffed animal. Find a box that is bigger than the animal (cardboard box, crate, toy box). Make up sentences using prepositions for your child to demonstrate. Examples: the bear is inside the box; help the bear jump on the box; place the bear beside the box. Another variation would be to have your child act out prepositional words: sit under the table; walk around the table; etc.
Common prepositions include: about, above, across, after, against, along, among, apart from, around, as, at, before, behind, below, beneath, beside, between, beyond, but, by, concerning, despite, down, during, except, for, from, in, inside, into, like, near, next, of, off, on, onto, out, outside, over, past, since, through, throughout, to, toward, under, underneath, until, up, upon, with, within, without.
Preposition File – one with typed words, one to have student write them on the list.
Preposition Game ~ Give points to each player for using prepositions.
Prepositions in Mozart Finds a Melody include: about, after, along, at, before, beside, beside, down, for, from, in, inside, into, off, on, out, over, through, to, under, until, up, upon, and with. Reread the story slowly with your child and have him/her locate the prepositions. (Use other Mozart books and biographies for older children to search for prepositions.)
Schoolhouse Rock Prepositions
Sesame Street (in, under, next, on)
Idioms & Literal Words:
What does the
phrase “ruffling a few feathers” mean in the story? Sometimes groups of words do
not mean exactly what we think they do. If we take the phrase literally using
the words in their original meaning, it would mean that some feathers on a bird
are put out of place or messed up. In this story, the phrase is an idiom or a
group of words that when put together have a different meaning than the words
separately. Generally, when people say someone has ‘ruffled their feathers’,
they mean that they have been upset about something that has happened. Can you
think of an idiom you have heard?
Foreign Language- German
Mozart spoke in German, the main language of Austria. Traveling around Europe as a child, he learned several other languages that he liked to use as well. This is documented in letters that he used to write to his mother and friends when he was away from home.
Learn to Speak German
German Theme Page at Enchanted Learning
Mozart enjoyed and cared for many pets such as a starling, canary, and a fox terrier. The book Mozart Finds a Melody by Stephen Costanze focuses on his pet starling, Miss Bimms. (Read the notes by the author in the book for interesting details about his pets.)
In what ways did Mozart show that he cared about Miss Bimms? He provided a birdcage for her to live in, was responsible to check for and provide food and water, talked to her, and searched for her when she was lost. Different types of animals have slightly different needs, but there are some things that all pets require.
Pet Responsibility Mini
Have you or could you help your parents do any of the following:
provide daily food and fresh water,
clean its sleeping or living area,
clean up its messes (yuck),
bathe or clean the animal,
brush the animal,
take it for a walk or help it exercise,
play with it,
keep it safe,
take it to the vet for good health,
and be loving and patient with it?
What else could you do? Ask your parents in which ways you may help care for your pet. If you do not have a pet, ask a friend or relative if you could help them with their pet.
Caring for Animals – The Bible has many verses where God asks us to care for the animals that He has provided for us.
Notebook Pages for Copywork (Older and younger kid versions) – Copy Bible passages that you find about animals or write an essay about how God wants us to treat animals. If you would prefer a smaller book, simply fold in halves or quarters.
Proverbs 12:10 A righteous man cares for the needs of his animal
Genesis 6:19 Noah - You are to bring into the ark two of all living creatures, male and female, to keep them alive with you. Two of every kind of bird, of every kind of animal and of every kind of creature that moves along the ground will come to you to be kept alive. You are to take every kind of food that is to be eaten and store it away as food for you and for them.”
The Bible also
has verses that shows how God cares for us like a shepherd cards for his sheep.
Psalm 23 Copywork Mini (older and younger kid versions) – Psalm 23 Accordion
Psalm 23 Puzzles & Pocket (2 versions – Cut pieces in size and number according to your child.)
Jesus loves you and cares for you like a shepherd cares for his sheep! He brings us into His flock of believers. He gently pulls us closer to Him and brings us to a safer place. He leads us through all the things we do in our lives helping us to make better choices on how we think, speak, and act. Even when life is difficult, or when we are scared and don’t know what to do, He is there with us, watching and leading, hoping we will follow His guidance. He is our protector. Discuss Psalm 23 with your student.
Psalm 23 -
is my shepherd, I shall not be in want.
makes me lie down in green pastures, he leads me beside quiet waters,
restores my soul. He guides me in paths of righteousness for his name's sake.
though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death,
I will fear no evil, for you are with me; your rod and your
staff, they comfort me.
prepare a table before me
in the presence of my enemies. You anoint my head with oil;
my cup overflows.
goodness and love will follow me all the days of my life, and I will dwell in
the house of the
Ezekiel 34:11 ”‘For this is what the Sovereign LORD says: I myself will search for my sheep and look after them. As a shepherd looks after his scattered flock when he is with them, so will I look after my sheep. I will rescue them from all the places where they were scattered on a day of clouds and darkness. I will bring them out from the nations and gather them from the countries, and I will bring them into their own land. I will pasture them on the mountains of Israel, in the ravines and in all the settlements in the land. I will tend them in a good pasture, and the mountain heights of Israel will be their grazing land. There they will lie down in good grazing land, and there they will feed in a rich pasture on the mountains of Israel. I myself will tend my sheep and have them lie down, declares the Sovereign LORD. I will search for the lost and bring back the strays. I will bind up the injured and strengthen the weak, but the sleek and the strong I will destroy. I will shepherd the flock with justice.
John 10:1-18 The Shepherd and His Flock
“I tell you the truth, the man who does not enter the sheep pen by the gate, but climbs in by some other way, is a thief and a robber. The man who enters by the gate is the shepherd of his sheep. The watchman opens the gate for him, and the sheep listen to his voice. He calls his own sheep by name and leads them out. When he has brought out all his own, he goes on ahead of them, and his sheep follow him because they know his voice. But they will never follow a stranger; in fact, they will run away from him because they do not recognize a stranger’s voice.” Jesus used this figure of speech, but they did not understand what he was telling them. Therefore Jesus said again, “I tell you the truth, I am the gate for the sheep. All who ever came before me were thieves and robbers, but the sheep did not listen to them. I am the gate; whoever enters through me will be saved. He will come in and go out, and find pasture. The thief comes only to steal and kill and destroy; I have come that they may have life, and have it to the full. “I am the good shepherd. The good shepherd lays down his life for the sheep. The hired hand is not the shepherd who owns the sheep. So when he sees the wolf coming, he abandons the sheep and runs away. Then the wolf attacks the flock and scatters it. The man runs away because he is a hired hand and cares nothing for the sheep. “I am the good shepherd; I know my sheep and my sheep know me– just as the Father knows me and I know the Father–and I lay down my life for the sheep. I have other sheep that are not of this sheep pen. I must bring them also. They too will listen to my voice, and there shall be one flock and one shepherd. The reason my Father loves me is that I lay down my life–only to take it up again. No one takes it from me, but I lay it down of my own accord. I have authority to lay it down and authority to take it up again. This command I received from my Father.”
Birds – Starling
Starlings Mini Pop-Up Book
Mozart’s bird was a starling; find out more about this kind of bird.
Starling Classification Mini
Bird Classification -Find detailed classification information and some wonderful pictures of each type of starling here!
Kingdom – Animalia (Animals)
Phylum – Chordata (Chordates)
Class – Avis (Birds)
Order – Passeriformes (Perching Birds)
Family – Sturnidae (Starlings, Mynahs, and Oxpeckers)
Genus – Sturnus (Starlings)
Species - Sturnus albofrontatus (white-faced starling)
Sturnus burmannicus (vinous-breasted starling)
Sturnus cineraceus (white-cheeked starling)
Sturnus contra (Asian pied starling)
Sturnus erythropygius (white-headed starling)
Sturnus malabaricus (chestnut-tailed starling)
Sturnus nigricollis (black-collared starling)
Sturnus pagodarum (Brahminy starling)
Sturnus philippensis (chestnut-cheeked starling)
Sturnus roseus (rosy starling)
Sturnus sericeus (red-billed starling)
Sturnus sinensis (white-shouldered starling)
Sturnus sturninus (purple-backed starling)
Sturnus unicolor (spotless starling)
Sturnus vulgaris (common starling)
Hands-On Learning about Birds – Make a birdhouse or bird feeder to put in your yard. Take pictures or make drawings of the children making them, the house and feeder outside, and the visiting birds to put in your lapbook. Observe and record the birds that inhabit your yard. Draw pictures of the birds you see. You may wish to obtain a book about bird identification to help.
Bird Observation Chart – Observe birds in your yard, park, or wherever. Write down your observations. Are certain birds more prevalent in your area than others?
Bird Drawing Journal – Draw pictures of some of the birds you observe, or ones you have seen pictures or videos of.
Bird Recipes Tab Book - Here are some ways to attract birds to your yard.
For Further Study of Birds try the Birds Connection Page at HSS.
All About Birds
Check here for all sorts of information and activities about birds. If you click on “Bird Watching” and “Hummingbirds”, it will take you to information about types of food, houses, and plants. It is useful for picking the type of birdhouse you want and for choosing the correct food for birds in your area. Although we are reading about a starling, this article gives advice to avoid them because of their aggressive behavior towards other birds.
Salzburg & Vienna, Austria Mini Book with elementary or regular lines - write in info or glue in pictures of the cities.
Austria Research Notebook Pages - fill-in report (answers listed below), lines and spaces for map and flag, regular lines, elementary lines, blank for drawings or pictures.
~Continent - Europe
~Capital - Vienna
~Surrounding Countries – Italy, Switzerland, Germany, Liechtenstein, Slovakia, Slovenia, Hungary, Czech Republic
~Major Cities – Vienna, Salzburg, Graz, Innsbruck, Linz, Bregenz, Klagenfurt
~Provinces – 9: Vienna (Wien), Lower Austria (Niederostereich), Upper Austria (Oberostereich), Salzburg, Tyrol (Tirol), Carinthia (Karnten), Vorarlberg, Styria (Steiemark), and Burgenland
~Mountains – Austrian Alps: Central Eastern, Northern Limestone, Southern Limestone – GloBalockner, Wildspitze, Kleinlockner, Weisskugel, WeiBkugel, GroBvenediger, Wiesbachhorn (Beautiful Mountain Pictures!)
~Bodies of Water - Danube River, Elbe River, Rhine River, Salzkammergut Lakes, Wallersee Lake
~Climate - humid, cool, temperate – pleasant 4 seasons
~Population – 8,316,487
~Area – 83.872 km2
~Language – German
~Currency - Euro
~Government - Federal Parliamentary Republic
~Favorite Sport – Skiing!
~Animals – Several varieties of deer, mouflan ram, ibex (mountain goat), wild boar, Lippizanner (horse), chamois (horned goat), marmots, Great Buster (large bird), heron, eagle
~Plants – EdelweiB (Edelwiess), Enzian, beech, oak, birch, spruce, fir, pine
Austria Shutterfold Maps & Flag Fold Books
Discuss the European Countries Mozart Toured and find them on your map or globe – England, France, Italy, Prussia – Germany
Historical People of Austria
Mozart’s time was a land of queens, kings, and large monarchies that spanned all of Europe. Many famous rulers came from the Habsburg Monarchy
Habsburg Family Album
Empress Maria Theresa (1717-1780) is mentioned in some of the books we read about Mozart. He played music for her and her family frequently. She was one of the supporters of the Mozart family when they toured throughout Europe. Maria Theresa is known by many titles including: Holy Roman Empress, Archduchess of Austria, and Queen of Hungary. If someone of her court were to introduce her he would have to announce her as “Maria Theresa, by the Grace of God, Dowager Holy Roman Empress; Queen of Hungary, of Bohemia, of Dalmatia, of Croatia, of Slavonia, of Galicia, of Lodomeria, etc; Archduchess of Austria; Duchess of Burgundy, of Styria, of Carinthia and of Carniola; Grand Princess of Transylvania; Margravine of Moravia; Duchess of Brabant, of Limburg, of Luxemburg, of Guelders, of Württemberg, of Upper and Lower Silesia, of Milan, of Mantua, of Parma, of Piacenza, of Guastalla, of Auschwitz and of Zator; Princess of Swabia; Princely Countess of Habsburg, of Flanders, of Tyrol, of Hennegau, of Kyburg, of Gorizia and of Gradisca; Margravine of Burgau, of Upper and Lower Lusatia; Countess of Namur; Lady on the Wendish Mark and of Mechlin; Dowager Duchess of Lorraine and Bar, Dowager Grand Duchess of Tuscany.” What a mouthful to say her entire royal title! (I don’t think I can even pronounce some of the names!)
Maria’s father was Charles the VI –Holy Roman Emperor and monarch. Up to that point in history, only male descendants could take over the throne when a ruler died. Since he had no sons, he appointed his eldest daughter to be his successor causing much conflict throughout Europe. Many countries refused to accept her and therefore started wars for dominance. Even though her reign was difficult at times, she is known as one of the best rulers of the Habsburg Dynasty during its 650 year period, and the only woman ruler. While she was battling opposing countries, trying to promote peace, and working with social reform, she also gave birth to 16 children (5 boys and 11 girls)!
Her eldest son, Joseph II, was her co-regent until her death, then became Holy Roman Emperor from 1780 – 1790. Her 3rd son, Leopold II followed his brother as Emperor 1790 – 1792. They were both known as political reformers.
Maria Antonia Josepha Johanna better known as Marie Antoinette, was the 15th child of Maria Theresa. She was married to King Louis XVI of France during the difficult time in France. Older students may want to research her role in the French Revolution.
There is a cute story about the young princess and musician Wolferl when they were both seven years old. One day after performing for the Habsburg family, Wolferl and Nannerl were playing with the royal children. Maria caught Wolferl when he slipped running in the palace, Schonbrunn. He then kissed her and told her he would marry her one day!
More on this interesting family:
House of Habsburg
Quill Pen & Ink Fold Book
Although it was possible to print music in the 1700’s, composers handwrote their music at home first. Instead of using a pencil or pen, composers and writers of the time used quill pens and inkbottles when creating their masterpieces. Penmanship was taken more seriously than today in our computer world. Writing with a quill pen took much practice to write neatly. There were no erasers, and only a limited amount of paper at times. Try your hand at writing with a quill pen in the mini book as Mozart did with his music.
Easy Quill Pen to make (I would suggest double stick tape or glue to attach feathers.)
Stagecoach Mini Book
Mozart’s family traveled from country to country on stagecoaches, and within the cities he toured and performed in. A stagecoach or carriage is a time scheduled traveling vehicle (coach) with 4 wheels and boxed in passenger seats that is pulled from one designated spot (stage) to another carrying passengers or cargo. Horse teams of four to six horses were exchanged at chosen stages on route between destinations. Two to twelve passengers and their belongings could travel on one depending on the style and size of the coach. Created in the 1500’s in England, stagecoach travel was awkward due to poor road conditions such as holes and rocks in the ‘road’, thick mud, fallen trees blocking the way, and narrow pathways. The development of the stagecoach started to improve road conditions that led to improved stagecoaches through time. About 40 miles could be traveled on a day of 12 – 18 hours if the weather and roads were good. Find a place that is 40 miles away from your home and discuss how long it would take to get there in modern vehicles. Stagecoaches were used regularly for distance travel until the 1800’s when railroad travel became available.
Diligence: Perseverance & Practicing- continuing when something seems difficult or impossible.
In the story young Mozart is frustrated when he is having difficulty composing a tune by the end of the week for his new opera, instead of giving up or saying, “I can’t do it”, he kept on trying until he was able to finish his work. His also showed perseverance when he was searching for Miss Bimms, his starling bird.
Music Lessons – Have you tried to play an instrument? It can be so much fun to play and make beautiful music, but it is not as easy as it may look.
If you play an instrument, write about your experiences practicing, trying a new song, and about lessons if you take them. Did you ever feel like quitting? What did you do? What can you do when you feel frustrated at something?
If you do not play an instrument, try to play one! See if a relative or friend could show you how to play a song on an instrument. If you do not know anyone who has an instrument, make up one (boxes for drums, bottles to blow in, spoons to tap together, etc.). Write about an experience about trying something that is hard (it doesn’t have to be music, it could be anything) and what you would do to be diligent.
Diligence Essay Notebook Page
Stewardship Definition: “the conducting, supervising, or managing of something; the careful and responsible
management of something entrusted to one’s care” Was Mozart a good steward?
“He always earned, by musicians' standards, a good income, and had a carriage and servants; through lavish spending and poor management he suffered times of financial difficulty and had to borrow.” He was extravagant in spending his money. Instead of saving his money and making wise choices about it, he enjoyed splurging it on luxuries, friends, and parties. Unfortunately, he died as a very poor man.
Stewardship Notebook Page
The Mozart family played music together for their livelihood. Discuss what kind of business or job could you create to work together as a family and earn money.
Wolfgang liked to tease and play tricks on people, especially his sister. How would God like us to treat our siblings? How would God like us to treat all His children? How would God like us to behave? Look up Bible verses that tell how we should act towards one another.
Loving Behavior Verse Cards & Pocket Here are some to get you started.
John 13:34 "A new command I give you: Love one another. As I have loved you, so you must love one another.
John 13:35 By this all men will know that you are my disciples, if you love one another."
Romans 12:10 Be
devoted to one another in brotherly love. Honor one another above yourselves.
Ephesians 4:2 Be completely humble and gentle; be patient, bearing with one another in love.
Matthew 7:12 So in everything, do to others what you would have them do to you, for this sums up the Law and the Prophets.
Luke 6:27-36 But I tell you who hear me: Love your enemies, do good to those who hate you, bless those who curse you, pray for those who mistreat you. If someone strikes you on one cheek, turn to him the other also. If someone takes your cloak, do not stop him from taking your tunic. Give to everyone who asks you, and if anyone takes what belongs to you, do not demand it back. Do to others as you would have them do to you.
"If you love those who love you, what credit is that to you? Even 'sinners' love those who love them. And if you do good to those who are good to you, what credit is that to you? Even 'sinners' do that. And if you lend to those from whom you expect repayment, what credit is that to you? Even 'sinners' lend to 'sinners,' expecting to be repaid in full. But love your enemies, do good to them, and lend to them without expecting to get anything back. Then your reward will be great, and you will be sons of the Most High, because he is kind to the ungrateful and wicked. Be merciful, just as your Father is merciful.
Can you think of any siblings in the Bible who were not so kind? (Cain/Abel – Jacob/Esau – Brothers of Joseph/Joseph – others, too). Although Joseph was treated unkindly by his brothers, how did he act towards them many years later? (Genesis 37, 42-47)
Loving Behavior Essay (Notebook pages) – Choose one or more topics to write an essay (or a sentence or two for younger students) about:
· Biblical behavior towards others - support it with verses.
· a favorite story about siblings in the Bible
· how can you be kinder to your siblings and others
· if you saw someone being teased or treated unkindly, what could you do?
1719 Father Leopold born in Augsburg November 14
1737 Leopold attended the University of Salzburg
1738 Leopold expelled from the University
Entered the services of Count Johann of Thurn-Valsassina und Taxis
Joined Prince-Archbishop’s orchestra as a chamber musician
Court Composer and vice-Kapellmeister
1747 Leopold and Anna Maria Pertl married on November 21
1751 Sister Maria Anna Mozart “Nannerl” born on July 30
1756 Wolfgang born on January 27
1759 Wolfgang started to play claviers (keyboard instruments) by ear at age 3 – No, that does not
mean he put his ear on the keyboard! It means he could hear a piece and simply sit down and
play the piece with prior practicing! He could play by just listening to the piece. He started to accompany his sister’s violin music and he joined with his father’s chamber ensemble on violin.
1760 Leopold taught Wolfgang and Maria Anna music instruments and music theory. Wolfgang
composed his first pieces of music at age 4. A quote from his father, "This piece was learnt by
Wolfgangerl on 24 January 1761, 3 days before his 5th birthday, between 9 and 9:30 in the
1762 Leopold performed with his children to the Court of the Elector in Munich, and to the Empress
Maria Theresa’s Viennese Court at the Schonbrunn Palace. Wolfgang is said to have leapt onto the Empress’s lap and give her a kiss after this performance! It is also about this time that young Wolfgang proposed marriage to Marie Antoinette (see Hapsburg family notes).
The Mozart family traveled around the countries of Europe including France, England, Holland,
Germany, Italy, Austria, and others. The family, especially the children suffered numerous
illnesses during these tours. Leopold encouraged performances because the children would
earn food and money when they performed.
*I find It interesting to note that Wolfgang performed for King George III in England during the
years that England and the American colonies had conflicts; i.e. Mozart lived in the same period
of political greats such as George Washington and Benjamin Franklin.
1768 At 12 years old, Mozart was commissioned, or hired to compose, by “imperial command” a full-length opera entitled La finta simplice!
Leopold and Wolfgang toured through Italy bringing much success to his popularity.
During this time he: - performed a solo concert before the Pope of Rome;
- was awarded the “Order of the Golden Spur”;
- and was accepted as a composer of the “Accademica Filarmonica” - an honor never before
given to someone under the age of 20.
Mozart was commissioned to compose for rich patrons and monarchs in Vienna and Munich.
Toured France with his mother, Anna Maria whom unfortunately died in Paris. He returned
1779 Earned the musical positions of Konzertmeister (concertmaster and organist) to the Court and Cathedral of Salzburg. He also wrote many compositions during the next several years.
1781 Wolfgang became an employee of the Archbishop of Salzburg who showed him off to aristocracy like a ‘possession’, but treated him poorly as a lowly servant.
He befriended composer Franz Joseph Haydn. They were mutually influential over one another. The older composer spoke of Mozart as having “the most consummate knowledge of the art of composition”.
1782 Wolfgang and Constanze Weber were married.
1783 Wolfgang’s first child was born.
1785 Wolfgang’s last meeting with his father, Leopold, after disagreements came to a peak.
1786 A libretto (story line of an opera) written by Lorenzo da Ponte became of interest to Mozart.
From this he composed Le nozze di Figaro (The Marriage of Figaro), which became an instant hit in Vienna and one of his best-known operas.
1787 Mozart had another great success with another opera collaboration with da Ponte called
Don Giovanni. He was appointed as Kammercompositor of the Emperor’s Court of Joseph II. It was an honorary appointment, but very low on income making the Mozart families still struggle financially. He had a stream of musical successes for a while until the death of Joseph II.
1790 Leopold II, who cared little for music, became the Emperor extinguishing Mozart’s position.
Mozart did a small tour of Germany and performed in front of other members of the Habsburg royal family.
1791 He composed one of his most momentous operas, Die Zauberflote (The Magic Flute).
As his health had been declining for years, he struggled to write his last piece, Requiem, which
was commissioned by an unknown patron. A friend finished the piece after Mozart’s death
on December 5. Mozart’s funeral took place at St. Stephen’s Cathedral. He was buried in an unmarked tomb.
Pick a few for younger students. Older students may add as many as they want plus world historic events if you choose. Since we studied Mozart during the same time we studied the American Colonies and Revolution, we tried to connect artistic styles with the time period, and compared what was happening in America and Europe in the 1700’s.
Mozart Notebook Page for older students
Birth - January 27, 1756 Death - December 5, 1791
Nationality – Austrian Style Period – Classical
Instruments – Violin, Keyboard Instruments (clavichord, harpsichord, piano, organ) and many others!
Main Works – The Magic Flute, Symphony #40
Summary of Life – take notes from your study.
Favorite Pieces – whatever you like!
Title (student creates title and writes) by (student’s name)
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
violin, harpsichord, piano (and many more)
1756 (January 27) – 1791 (December 5)
symphonies, concertos, chamber music, piano music, operas, and choral and several others
Have student write down pieces you chose to listen to and his / her favorites.
Where? Salzburg, Austria
When? January 27, 1756
Who? Johannes Chrisostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart
Leopold (Dad) - Kapellmeister (music director) and head composer at the Court of Prince-Archbishop
Sigismund of Salzburg, also taught music lessons.
Anna Maria (Mom) - supportive of musical achievements of the family, toured with Wolfgang to Paris,
but became ill and died there.
Nannerl (sister) – proficient player of clavier (a keyboard type instrument) and violin – toured Europe
with Leopold and Wolfgang when she was young.
Wolfgang: musical genius!
The best way to learn about a composer, a style, or music in general is to listen to it frequently! Appreciation may not come the first time, but familiarity with a piece of music leads to more understanding of the notes, the emotions, and the background of the piece. Listed is a small variety of Mozart’s genius! Yes, small compared to the over 600 compositions he produced in his almost 36 years! Check here for an almost complete list. Included are samples of piano and harpsichord music, chamber ensembles, chorals, symphonies, concertos, sonatas, vocal opera and overtures. With older students, have them analyze and dissect compositions to learn more about them. Younger students should move to the beat in tempo (try dancing!) and tell how they feel about a piece. Many psychologists and educators have claimed that listening to Mozart will increase math and reasoning abilities ~ this is called the Mozart Effect. You may want to consider purchasing a CD to listen to in your home and vehicle.
Digitale Mozart Edition
Free sheet music (entire scores) and recordings of much of Mozart’s music. Awesome resources but a little tricky to manouver around – from the opening page, click “yes”, click on the series you are interested in, click on “i” for the index, click on the “PDF” symbol for sheet music or click on the small speaker graphic to hear the piece and see the music at the same time. You may want to print out music to study, play, or place into your lapbook or notebook (It might make a really nice cover!)
Reading Musical Titles
Some musical pieces contain numbers, letters, and numbers following a ‘K’. You may be left scratching your head thinking “huh?” if you see something
like this in a classical music concert program: Flute Concerto #2 in D Major, K. 314 / 385d ~ 1st Movement Allegro by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
This will help you interpret what it all means! ~
flute = this piece features the flute
concerto = the type of composition it is
#2 = it is the second of such type of pieces he composed
D Major = the key or tonal center of the piece
K = a gentleman named Ludwig Kochel tried to organize Mozart’s compositions in the 1800’s in the order they were written in – the first number 314 means it was the 314th piece Mozart composed – the second number 385 is a new order given it after ‘lost’ pieces of music were found and corrections needed to be made – the ‘d’ means it was composed between compositions ‘c’ and ‘e’.
1st movement = which section or movement it is in the piece – 1st, 2nd, 3rd, etc.
Allegro = refers to the tempo (speed) of a movement or section of the entire piece
*Listen to this piece and see the musical score
Sometimes common names or nicknames are used for the pieces such as: “Jupiter” - would refer to Symphony #41 in C Major K551
More info on the Kochel Catalogue
Numbers & Letters: What do they mean? Use this mini matchbook to interpret names of musical pieces. Try this one and others:
The Piano Concerto # 8 in C Major, #2 Andante, K. 246 by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Other Austrian Composers
Check out books or read simple bios of other Austrian composers. Write anything you want to remember in the composer book.
Popular Austrian Composers (besides our favorite, Mozart!)
Ludwig Van Beethoven
Johann Strauss, Sr.
Johann Strauss, Jr.
Classical Music Period
Music changes and grows with time as just like fashions, trends, and styles pass into new ideas frequently in our world. Music (art, architecture, literature, dance, and drama, also) has been divided into style periods. Each style period has its own characteristics that make it unique or different than other styles. Mozart lived during the time period referred to as the classical music period. In fact, he is one of the major contributors to the style. Sometimes people refer to ‘classical music’ as anything old or before the time of rock, jazz, and blues. Technically, this is inaccurate because there several style periods before the 20th century. Major music styles periods are: Ancient Greece & Rome, Medieval, Renaissance, Baroque, Classical, Romantic, and 20th Century. Each of these periods contain several forms of music, also.
Classical Era (Look on the left top for summaries of other periods.)
The classical music period roughly extended from 1750 – 1820 “has been broadened to subsume the entire period between the more heavily-ornate Baroque and the more emotionally-charged Romantic eras; while admittedly simplistic, the term “classical” does suggest the emphasis for orderly, balanced, and natural musical discourse that marks this period. It is not unrelated that these years correspond to the Enlightenment and the rise of democracy, to which the straightforward and often “popular” approach to musical expression formed a logical counterpart.”
Classical Music Characteristics:
Classical Period Composers:
Ludwig van Beethoven
Franz Joseph Haydn
Composer’s Gallery ~ Choose a composer by country, birthday, style, or name ~ click on the composer’s picture you want to study ~ contains mini bio and sound clips.
Favorite Kinds of Music in the Classical Period:
opera – a story told by vocal and instrumental music; there is no speaking; very elaborate costumes and
opera buffa (comic opera) prefered during this period, less intense stories with a happier ending than
overture – a piece of music with three sections starting fast, then slow, and ending with an upbeat faster
movement or section
symphony – a piece of music with three or four movements (sections) – fast, slower, minuet (dance in ¾) and
fast usually played by an entire orchestra
sonata allegro or sonata – a piece of music composed for a single instrument with background
accompaniment; contains three or four movements (sections) which may be used as a single piece by
itself; the term can also mean the first movement of an entire symphony
string quartet – four string musicians playing together – two violins, one viola, one cello
chamber music – music to be perforned in a ‘chamber’ or room by a small number of musicians usually less
than 40 as compared to the larger symphony orchestras
minuet – music composed for a dance in ¾ time; later to be used solo as simply instrumental music or part of a
larger piece of music
Reading a Musical Score ~ Print out just the first page of this music score, and listen to the video as you study the whole music theory section.
Eine Kleine Nachtmusik Score
Eine Kleine Nachtmusik Video
Eine Kleine Nachtmusik is one of Mozart’s most popular pieces! The title is in German. It means A Little Night Music. Musicians in an orchestra each have their own sheet music telling them how to play their part. The conductor’s music is called a score. It contains all the parts of all the musicians so he or she may assist them in learning their parts. The conductor, or maestro, is the leader who you see standing in the front of the orchestra waving his arms around. (Sounds sort of silly, doesn’t it? But we’ll learn why he does this later.) The score can tell us many things! Try to find these things on the first page.
What is the title of the piece? Eine Kleine Nachtmusik (Serenade in G)
What tempo (speed) in the piece? Allegro (fast)
How many parts are there? 5
What instruments are needed? Look close ~ the answer is located at two places:
the 4th line contains two parts “Violincello e Basso” or Cello and Bass;
and under the title it says, “fur zwei violinen, viola, violincello, und contrabass”
~ 2 Violins, Viola, Cello, and Bass ~ the string family
What is the Kochel listing number? KV 525
When was it written? August 10, 1787
What is the dynamic (volume) to be played? f = forte = loud
Mozart Finds a Melody, find the page with the musical score in the
background picture. Look for the instruments in his score ~ flauto, oboe,
fagotto, corno, violino, viola, violoncello and basso. Why aren’t the
instruments written in English? Music printed in different countries may have
words in another language. At the time his music was composed, many composers
used the Italian language because Italy was a leader in composition and music
theory. In modern music, composers still use Italian words for some things no
matter what their 1st language is so that it can be understood by
musicians all around the world. You probably already know a few words. The
instrument we call piano was first called ‘pianoforte’ because it had the
capability of playing soft (piano) or loud (forte)! The instruments listed in
the book score in English are: flute, oboe, bassoon, horn, violin, viola, cello
many instruments, but his best instruments were the violin and pianoforte. In
the book, Mozart Finds a Melody, you will find pictures of many
instruments if you hunt through the book. Here are some that I found: violin,
viola, cello, string bass, horns (curved and straight), clarinet, reed flute,
bassoon, bass drum (implied on score page), the voice, the clavier family –
harpsichord, piano, organ (Wolfgang played the organ pedals by standing on his
tiptoes at a young age!) Research instruments and orchestras.
Instrument Families of the Orchestra from DSO
Room from NYP
Music is everywhere around us! Mozart’s singing bird inspired him to compose the music in the story. He worked other sounds into his composition, too. Listen to the everyday sounds around you. What kinds of interesting sounds do you hear that could be made into a song? Birds whistling, crickets chirping, dog or wolf howling, cat singing, wind blowing, leaves rustling; … I made a list of sounds that fit every element of music.
someone running or walking tempo (speed)
gentle rain or thunder dynamics (volume of sound)
birds singing melody (tune of a song)
frogs croaking harmony (background notes)
woodpecker tapping rhythm (duration, beat, pattern)
everything! tone color (types of sounds)
men, women, and children’s voices pitch (high or low)
Listen to the sound clips of nature from Microsoft. Listen to things around you whether inside or outside. Try to think of how the sounds you hear could be made into a song. Try to write one for every element of music in the mini book.
Music and math share many similarities. Musicians use counting, adding, whole numbers and fractions, multiplying and dividing, formulas, measurements, and comparisons of length. Even when playing a scale (notes ascending or descending one note at a time), or chords (groups of notes played together), math skills are necessary.
Notes in a song are different durations or lengths. Musicians know how long to play each note by the type of note it is. The notes are arranged into small groups called measures within the piece of music, and are divided by bar lines. The measures and bar lines help musicians count the length of each note in order to make the song sound like it should, and also to play together with other musicians. The combination of different valued notes put together is called the rhythm of the piece.
Something silly to try ~ sing one of your favorite songs. Then sing the same song but make all the notes the same length or mixed up lengths. Does it sound the same? Sing the song with another person, but sing it at different speeds or with different rhythms at the same time. Do you see why it is important for musicians to use math?
Rhythmic Note Values. ~ Duration of notes depends on many things. Use the Eine Kleine Nachtmusik Score for this lesson.
A half note looks like a small circle or oval also, but it has a line that goes up on the right, or down on the left. The stem changes the value of the note. It is only played for 2 beats. Can you find half notes in the score? Yes ~ 16 of them on measures 11, 12, 15, and 16!
· How many flags does it have on top? The second and fourth notes of the basso part are eighth notes. They are played for ½ of a beat. Look for the little flag that is attached to the end of the stem. They look fancy when there is only one of them. When there is more than one, you will see what looks like a line of quarter notes attached with a line at the end of the stem. The first four notes in the second measure are 8th notes. Value of notes are cut in half or divided by 2 every time a flag is added to the note. You will find some 16th notes in the violin II part in the 5th measure. See how they have two flags at the top? They are only ¼ of a beat!
· Is there a dot after the note on the right side? A dot after a note adds extra value to the note. Remember I said musicians use mathematical formulas? Don’t worry, you don’t have to find the perimeter of a whole note, but when using a dot, a little calculation is in order.
“The Dotted Note Formula”
Take the value of the original note + half the value of that note = the value of the dotted note
Value + ½ Value = Value of Dotted Note
Try one: If you had a dotted whole note ( O.), how many beats would it be played?
V + ½ V = VD
O + . = O.
4 + 2 = 6
“The Dotted Note Formula” – try some more in these mini books.
The third note in the 6th, 7th, and 8th measures of the violin I part are dotted quarter notes. Be careful not
to be confused with staccato notes that are played in a detached style. Staccato notes have a dot
written on top or underneath of them. An example is in measure 10, 1st two notes of violin I.
The values of the notes in 4/4 meter (time signature) are:
Whole Note = 4 beats Dotted Whole Note = 6
Half Note = 2 beats Dotted Half Note = 3 beats
Quarter Note = 1 beat Dotted Quarter Note = 1 ½ beats
Eighth Note = ½ beat Dotted Eighth Note = ¾ beat
Sixteenth Note = ¼ beat Dotted Sixteenth Note = 3/8 beat
Thirty-second Note = 1/8 beat Dotted Thirty-second Note = 3/16 beat
2 3 4
4 4 4
The top number represents the amount of beats that belong in each measure. Notes and rests are
assigned an amount of beats. Beats can be fast or slow, but are usually steady throughout a piece.
The bottom number represents the type of note that receives one beat. In most songs, a quarter note
plays for one beat. The 4 on the bottom of the time signature notates this. All notes values change if the
bottom number of the time signature is different. We have to use music math again! If a 2 is on the
bottom, divide all the regular values in half. If an 8 is on the bottom, multiply all the values by 2.
What is a Time Signature? ~ Answers: The numbers at the beginning of a piece of music that
tell the beats per measure and note values. Bottom: A 4 on the bottom tells you that every
quarter note receives one beat. Top: The top number is the amount of beats per measure. 4/4
~ 4 on top, 1 on bottom.
Sometimes listening to music can give us certain feelings, actions, or pictures in our mind. In the movies, Fantasia and Fantasia 2000, Disney artists created cartoon pictures to music. Some of them have nothing to do with what the composer had in mind, but the artists used their imaginations while they were listening, and drew what they ‘saw’ in their minds. Give it a try - while listening to Mozart’s music, draw a picture of whatever it makes you think of. Try it with another piece. Are the colors and designs the same as the first one?
Neo-Classical Art Characteristics
Art during Mozart’s life had style changes similar to music. The period was called the neo-classical period in art. The prefix “neo” refers to something new or recent. Classical refers to something from classical Greek or Roman times, therefore, neoclassical = new classics. Artists from France and England led the pack, but all of western Europe embraced the techniques. Johann J. Winckelmann, a German art historian, labeled the most significant essentials of classical art as “noble simplicity and calm grandeur.” Other characteristics of new-classical art are:
· gentle, calm, light colors
Artist of the Classical Period – pick an artist from the classical period and write a few notes or an essay about the person.
Enjoy cooking some of the dishes that are favorites in Austria! Mozart would have eaten some of these same foods in his home country. There are recipes for 3 meals for the day. Try them out! Remember to put pictures of you and your meals in the pocket. Sources of the recipes are on the cards if you would like to search for more. Blank recipe cards are included.
Breakfast: Palatschinken – Pancakes
Kaiserschmarrn – Emporer’s Omlette
Lunch: Supe Paprika – Paprika Soup
Topfenkolatsche - Cheese Danish
Dinner: Wiener Schnitzel - Viennese Meat
Kartoffel Salat – Potato Salad
Wiener Apfelstrudel – Viennese Apple Strudel
Just for Fun
The Sound of Music
Everyone is familiar with this true classic story about the Von Trapp Family! It has been written in books, set to music in the Rodgers & Hammerstein musical, and filmed as one of the greatest movies ever. The Von Trapp family shares the same hometown as the Mozart family. Their full story is very interesting ~ check it out sometime!
Musical Salzburg Family
What? a very musical family
Who? The Von Trapp Family
When? The years around World War II (1927 – 1940’s)
Where? Salzburg, Austria
Why? George Von Trapp declined naval duty for the 3rd Reich; family moved to Vermont, USA
How? started with nothing in America; toured and performed music for over 20 years to earn their living
Learn more about Austrian Folk Music and complete the mini book, if desired.
Austrian Folk Music Video
CDs / Tapes:
Mozart’s Magic Fantasy by Classic Kids
Mozart’s Magnificent Voyage by Classic Kids
Games ~ Time Machine, Beethoven’s Baseball, Meyerson Squares, Music Match,
Color a Picture, Composer’s Keyboard, Conductor Jump, Hangman, Word Match,
Letter Scramble – Learn and have fun at the same time!
~More Music Printables at Pam's Blog!
~Composer Time Machine
~Online Musical Games http://games.pppst.com/music.html
~Several wonderful composer and instrument materials at Homeschool Share
~Let’s Go, Mozart! Teacher Resource Kit
~We found much information about Mozart’s life and world events at the “Mozart Project”