Go West with Columbus Game created by Wende
Print out game board and
game cards on card stock. Players take turns drawing cards and moving in
the direction indicated. The first player to get to a Treasure space wins.
Lesson 1: August 3rd – September 3rd (Pg 1-12)
Prayer Journal Project
At the beginning of the August 7th entry, Pedro writes a prayer. Many Christians have written their prayers to God, and this book provides the opportunity for your student to start his own prayer journal. In preparation for this project, you can print the pre-made journal or you can give your student liberty to create one. The pre-made journal is in Adobe, so you will need that program (it’s free) in order to open it. One has the King James Version of the Lord’s prayer printed throughout and the other has the New International Version’s verses printed throughout.
Prayer Journal KJV
Prayer Journal NIV
Father which art in heaven,
Hallowed be thy name,”
This phrase reminds us of who God is. He is our loving Father, but he is also HOLY (hallowed). You may want to take a few minutes to discuss the word HOLY with your student.
God has many attributes and names. We can use these names to worship him in our prayers. Some include:
|Adonai-Jehovah -- The Lord our Sovereign||Jehovah-Shalom -- The Lord our Peace|
|El-Elyon -- The Lord Most High||Jehovah-Tsidkenu -- The Lord our Righteousness|
|El-Olam -- The Everlasting God||Jehovah-Mekaddishkem -- The Lord our Sanctifier|
|El-Shaddai -- The God Who is Sufficient for the Needs of His People||Jehovah-Sabaoth -- The Lord of Hosts|
|Jehovah-Elohim -- The Eternal Creator||Jehovah-Shammah -- The Lord is Present|
|Jehovah-Jireh -- The Lord our Provider||Jehovah-Rohi -- The Lord our Shepherd|
|Jehovah-Nissi -- The Lord our Banner||Jehovah-Hoseenu -- The Lord our Maker|
|Jehovah-Ropheka -- The Lord our Healer||Jehovah-Eloheenu -- The Lord our God|
The Bible refers to God as:
|Creator||Consuming Fire||Hiding Place|
|Prince of Peace||Rock||Shelter|
|Father (Abba)||Foundation||Present Help in Trouble|
|Almighty||Bright and Morning Star||Counselor|
|Everlasting||King of Kings||Lord of Lords|
|Father of Light||
God of all grace
|God of glory|
God says He is:
|I am a great King||I am Alpha and Omega (beginning and end)||I am God Almighty|
|I am gracious||I am holy||I am merciful|
|I am the Almighty God||I am the bread of life||I am the door|
|I am the good shepherd||I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob||I am the light of the world|
|I am the living bread||I am the LORD||I am the LORD, and there is none else|
|I am the Lord GOD||I am the LORD thy God||I am the LORD, your Holy One|
|I am the resurrection, and the life||I am the root and offspring of David||I am the Son of God|
|I am the vine||I am the way, the truth, and the life||I am thy salvation|
|I am thy Savior||I am thy shield||I am with thee|
|I am with you always|
Discuss some (choose a few ahead of time) of the names of God with your student; discuss the meanings and implications of these names. Which ones are meaningful to you? To your student? Why? Have your student choose some names that he understands and use the names to praise God in his prayer journal.
Let’s teach our students to PRAISE God for who He is!
Let’s explore the different jobs that we will encounter in this book.
Explorer: (October 8)
A person who explores unknown or little known places.
To go into or travel through an unknown or unfamiliar place for the purpose of discovery.
What kind of person would you need to be to be an explorer? Do you think you would like to be an explorer? Why or Why not? What would you like to explore?
Use these types of questions to discuss the following occupations as well? Also, for the following why would it be important for them to bring this person on the voyage? What advantage did Pedro have over the other ship Boys? (He could read and write) When topics come up through out your reading you could ask your child which person would perform that task. For example on August 7th Pedro talks about the ropes on the rudders have broken and repairs would have to be made. Who would perform these repairs?
Ship’s Boy (August 3)
The ship's boy, or cabin boy, was usually an underage youth acting as a sort of all-around-assistant and gopher type position used by the captain.
Captain (August 3)
The leader of a group; chief; The person in command of a ship.
Boatswain (August 27)
The boatswain is in charge of sails, rope, rigging, and anchors.
It is also his office to summon the crew to their duty; to assist with his mates in the necessary business of the ship; and to relieve the watch when it expires.
Carpenters (Aug 27)
A person who builds or repairs wooden objects and structures.
Caulkers (August 27)
A person who stops up and makes tight against leakage.
Sailors (August 27)
A person who sails, especially as a member of a ship’s crew.
Navigator (September 3)
A crew member who is in charge of navigating the ship from point to point using charts, the stars, the sun and all instruments. He recorded the depth, the currents, the wind patterns, the ship's location, the locations of reefs and sandbars. The navigator maintained all of the ship's charts and maps as well as the tools of navigation.
Helmsmen (Sept 10)
The person at the helm; one who steers.
Cook (Sept 18)
A person who prepares food for eating by using heat.
Activity: Do you have a hiking trail or something close to your home that you have never been to? If so you can go explore that area.
You could have your child “apply” for one of the above jobs” (Discuss what resumes and cover letters are.)
Voyage: a course of travel or passage, esp. a long journey by water to a distant place.
Nautical: Of, relating to, or characteristic of ships, shipping, sailors, or navigation on a body of water.
Astrolabe: An ancient instrument used widely in medieval times by navigators and astronomers to determine latitude, longitude, and time of day. The device employed a disk with 360 degrees marked on its circumference. Users took readings from an indicator that pivoted around the center of the suspended device like the hand of a clock. The astrolabe was replaced by the sextant in the 18th century.
Sextant: an astronomical instrument used to determine latitude and longitude at sea by measuring angular distances, esp. the altitudes of sun, moon, and stars.
Compass: an instrument for determining directions, as by means of a freely rotating magnetized needle that indicates magnetic north.
Mariner: One who navigates or assists in navigating a ship.
Dinghy: any small boat designed as a tender or lifeboat, esp. a small ship's boat, rowed, sailed, or driven by a motor.
Careening: To cause (a ship) to lean to one side; tilt.
Uncharted: not shown or located on a map; unexplored; unknown, as a place or region
Anchor: any of various devices dropped by a chain, cable, or rope to the bottom of a body of water for preventing or restricting the motion of a vessel or other floating object, typically having broad, hooklike arms that bury themselves in the bottom to provide a firm hold.
Lateen: Being, relating to, or rigged with a triangular sail hung on a long yard that is attached at an angle to the top of a short mast.
Navigator: a person who conducts explorations by sea
Transcribed: to make an exact copy of
Log: any of various records, made in rough or finished form, concerning a trip made by a ship or aircraft and dealing with particulars of navigation, weather, engine performance, discipline, and other pertinent details; logbook
Port: a place along a coast in which ships may take refuge from storms; harbor.
Lesson 1: Water and bodies of Water
Show a globe to your child and ask how much of our world is made up of water. Water covers about ¾ of our earth. Make a pie graph (since the earth is round) and show how much ¾ is. What is water? Have you ever heard someone refer to water as H2O? Water is a basic molecule made up of two hydrogen atoms, and one oxygen atom. When these three atoms come together, they form a strong bond that is difficult to break. Water is one of the most common substances on the Earth. Scientists believe that the amount of water on Earth does not change over time. (What we have now is what we have always had and what we will always have.) (You might want to cover the water cycle)
Why is water important?
Water has some unique properties.
Some of the different types of bodies of water are
Bay: A bay is a body of water that is partly enclosed by land (and is usually smaller than a gulf).
Channel: A channel is a body of water that connects two larger bodies of water (like the English Channel). A channel is also a part of a river or harbor that is deep enough to let ships sail through
Cove: A cove is small, horseshoe-shaped body of water along the coast; the water is surrounded by land formed of soft rock.
Gulf: A gulf is a part of the ocean (or sea) that is partly surrounded by land (it is usually larger than a bay).
Lagoon: A lagoon is a shallow body of water that is located alongside a coast.
Ocean: An ocean is a large body of salt water that surrounds a continent. Oceans cover more the two-thirds of the Earth's surface
The Salt Marsh: a mudflat found in shallow quiet waters along bays or behind barrier islands, settled by animals and salt-tolerant plants.
Sea: A sea is a large body of salty water that is often connected to an ocean. A sea may be partly or completely surrounded by land.
What are the largest seas?
The South China Sea
The Caribbean Sea
The Mediterranean Sea
The Red Sea often looks red
because of red algae that live in this sea.
The Black Sea looks almost black because it has a high concentration of hydrogen sulfide (which appears black).
Sound: A sound is a wide inlet of the sea or ocean that is parallel to the coastline; it often separates a coastline from a nearby island.
Streams and rivers: bodies of fresh water that usually flow into oceans, lakes, or other rivers.
Swamp: A swamp is a type of freshwater wetland that has spongy, muddy land and a lot of water. Many trees and shrubs grow in swamps
Ponds and Lakes: still or slow-moving bodies of water that are found inland, away from the ocean. Ponds are usually much smaller than lakes.
Geometry: Solid Shapes
want to study geometry while covering this book. I read that Columbus
improved his skills by studying astronomy,
and drafting spherical maps.
your child knows the names of the following solid shapes: cone, cylinder,
cube, triangular prism, sphere, and rectangular prism
Print prepared shapes file
Using a flip flap book or something similar - have your child write the name of the shape and put a picture on the outside of the flap. On the inside have them describe each shape. How many sides? Can you roll it? If you trace it what shape would you get?
The way we tell time has changed over the course of history. One of Pedro’s jobs was to announce and record the time. He did this by using an hourglass.
Make an hourglass: Tape two plastic funnels together at the narrow ends. Cut one of the ends so that it will fit into the other funnel end. Cover one end with plastic wrap then add sand. Add plastic wrap to the other end.
Make a sundial
Lesson 2: September 10th – September 18th (Pg 13-17)
kingdom come, Thy will be done in earth, as
What is God’s will? Explain to your student that God’s will is whatever is His good pleasure. God’s will is always good and best. The Bible tells us many times that God does as he pleases, and we should ask Him to help us accept and desire His will.
Sometimes a relative will be sick or terminally ill. How should we pray for that person? How should we pray for anything? We should pray that God’s will be done.
Jesus knew He was getting ready to suffer on the cross. Of course, in His humanity, He did not want physical pain. None of us do. But, he had to pray for God’s will because He knew that God’s will was the best.
Whenever we ask for anything in prayer, we need to be sure and pray that God’s will be done. We can go a step further and beg God to help our hearts desires to become one with His own desires and will so that we can accept whatever answers He has to our prayers.
Help your student think of some prayer requests that He wants to include in His journal. Discuss with him that our ways and thoughts are not as high as God and that God knows best even when our human minds can’t comprehend his higher plan. Your student should record his requests in his journal and then make one more request—Lord, if this is not according to Your will, help me to accept Your will.
Geography (early beliefs about the world)
Maps and beliefs are very different today then they were during the time of Pedro’s voyage. To see how little was known about our world during that time take your map and fold the Pacific Ocean, North America, and South America behind Asia and Africa so that you can not see that part of our world. The area that remains is all they knew about during Pedro’s time. Another belief they had was that our world was flat. You could have your child bake a sheet cake to show what they believed. They believed that if you kept going you would eventually “fall” off of the earth. This can be shown by the edge of a sheet cake. Decorate your cake to look like the earth. Use green icing for land and blue for water draw an outline of Asia and Africa fill it in with green then cover the rest of the cake with blue for the water. Using a toy boat put it in the water. Show how if they kept sailing they would “fall” off of the earth. (Pedro’s mentions the world was flat on August 7. He also mentioned that they believed in Sea Monsters.)
Shrouds: Nautical One of a set of ropes or wire cables stretched from the masthead to the sides of a vessel to support the mast.
Fathoms: a unit of length equal to six feet (1.8 meters): used chiefly in nautical measurements
Tiller: a bar or lever fitted to the head of a rudder, for turning the rudder in steering.
Read the following poem aloud. Use it for copywork or memory work. Discuss rhyme scheme. You could also have your student write a poem about Columbus.
fourteen hundred ninety-two
Columbus sailed the ocean blue.
He had three ships and left from Spain;
He sailed through sunshine, wind and rain.
He sailed by night; he sailed by day;
He used the stars to find his way.
A compass also helped him know
How to find the way to go.
Ninety sailors were on board;
Some men worked while others snored.
Then the workers went to sleep;
And others watched the ocean deep.
Day after day they looked for land;
They dreamed of trees and rocks and sand.
October 12 their dream came true,
You never saw a happier crew!
"Indians! Indians!" Columbus cried;
His heart was filled with joyful pride.
But "India" the land was not;
It was the Bahamas, and it was hot.
The Arakawa natives were very nice;
They gave the sailors food and spice.
Columbus sailed on to find some gold
To bring back home, as he'd been told.
He made the trip again and again,
Trading gold to bring to Spain.
The first American? No, not quite.
But Columbus was brave, and he was bright.
Long ago, when men believed that the world was flat, they thought the ocean was nothing but a narrow river running around the edge of the earth. The ancient Greeks gave this river the name Okeanos, which is where we get ocean. The Mediterranean was the only large sea that they knew of and it was in the middle of their world. That is why it came to be called the Mediterranean, which means middle of the earth. People began to realize by Marco Polo’s day that the world was not flat and that the ocean was not a narrow river. But they were not sure how big the earth was. They also believed that the only land that existed was the area formed by Europe, Asia, and Africa. So they still did not realize how big the ocean was.
Christopher Columbus was not surprised when he sighted land after only 33 days on the water because he thought the world was only about 2/3 as large as it really is.
In 1492 Columbus sailed the ocean blue. Most of this water is found in the ocean. Locate the oceans: Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Arctic, and (now they say there is a 5th) Southern Ocean or Antarctic. While we think of these bodies of water as separate oceans, they are all connected and make up one global ocean. Water from one of the four oceans is free to move into another ocean. Whales, fish, and other life forms from one ocean are free to travel to another. In addition to these four oceans, a number of seas, bays, and gulfs have also been designated. These are generally just smaller portions of one of the larger oceans.
The largest of all the Earth’s oceans (64, 186, 000 square miles) and covers twice as much space as any other ocean, and more space than all the continents put together.
It extends upward touching the Arctic ocean, and down to the shores of Antarctica. The bulk of the ocean lies along the warm tropics making the majority of the water warm.
Has the deepest average depth (15,215) and is also home to the deepest trenches on Earth. Has many small volcanic islands – Hawaii, Tonga, and Samoa.
Stretches from the Artic Ocean, downward to the shores of Antarctica. From East to West, the Atlantic Ocean is only about half as wide as the Pacific. Its total dept is about 12,881 and it is about 33,420,000 square miles.
Lies between Africa on the West, Australia on the East, Asia on the North, and Antarctica on the South. 90% of this ocean lies to the South of the Equator. It is about 7,848,300 square miles and 13,002 feet deep.
The Arctic Ocean is much smaller (5,106,000 square miles) and shallower (3,953 fee deep). This ocean is connected to the Pacific and Atlantic oceans via small gaps between continents. This ocean is also much colder than the other most of the other oceans, with much of the water having a frozen cap.
Salt in the ocean comes from rocks on land. As water flows in rivers, it picks up small amounts of mineral salts from the rocks and soil of the river beds. This very-slightly salty water flows into the oceans and seas. The water in the oceans only leaves by evaporating (and the freezing of polar ice), but the salt remains dissolved in the ocean - it does not evaporate. So the remaining water gets saltier and saltier as time passes.
The saltiest water is in the Red Sea and in the Persian Gulf, (due to very high evaporation rates and low fresh water influx). The least salty seas are in the polar regions, where both melting polar ice and a lot of rain dilute the salinity.
Discuss with children that sea water is salty. Have two plastic containers filled with water, and discuss how they are the same.Then add large amounts of salt to one of the containers and stir until dissolved. Are they the same? Why or why not? Let the children smell and taste the difference.
Do this activity to determine if you can see the salt in the ocean
hot tap water
1/4 cup measure
Put the pie plate on the heater. Pour 2 cups of hot water into a container, then pour in 1/4 cup salt. Stir the solution until the salt dissolves. Then pour the solution into the pan on the heater. Each student should have an observation chart have them draw and explain what they see in their pans.
Fill two containers with water; add generous amounts of salt to one and stir until dissolved. Place a raw egg in each container. The egg in the unsalted water should sink and the one in the salted water should float.
Rabbit Trail- Why are the oceans blue?
Many early maps were carved in wood. If you are able, let your student try this. If not you could have your student draw an early map on a piece of wood with chalk or a charcoal pencil.
Geometry: Lines, line segments, and rays
Using a ruler,
have your child practice drawing lines, line segments, and rays.
Place salt in baggies and add food coloring to each baggie. Shake and lay out to dry. Have children create an ocean scene by placing glue on construction paper and sprinkling on different colors of salt.
Lesson 3: September 21st – September 30th (Pg 18-25)
us this day our daily bread”
What do we need to get through the day? This part of your student’s journal is for list-making. Have your student make a list of needs (not wants!)…We need food, water, clothing, shelter…we need God. We need these things daily. If all of your students needs are met, have him THANK GOD! “Lord, THANK YOU for the clothes my parents have provided for me and THANK YOU for the Frosted Flakes I ate this morning and THANK YOU for…thank you for giving us what we need to make it through each day.”
Obtain a compass. A compass is an instrument with a magnetized needle that points north. By knowing were North is, you can use the compass to find other directions. The earth contains metals that are naturally magnetized. One end of the compass needle will always point toward the North Pole because of the Earth’s magnetic properties. The northern part of our world has a special magnetic pull. Using the compass introduce the terms North, South, East, and West. Explain that on a map which way is N, S, E, and W. Also discuss Northeast, Southeast, Southwest, and Northwest.
Make a compass (pictures contributed by Celia Hartmann)
1 sewing needle
1 magnet (maybe there is one on the refrigerator)
1 bowl of water
small piece of paper
Take a square piece of paper and draw a circle on it or trace a circle. Fold the paper in half then in half again. Open the paper and mark north, south, east and west. Now, fold the paper from corner to corner in a triangle. Unfold and fold in another triangle the other way. Mark these fold lines as NE, SE, SW, and NW.
Place a small bowl of water
on the circle you drew. Fill the bowl with some water.
Now, you will need to magnetize the needle. Stroke the dull end of a needle across the magnet 60 times, going in the same direction each time.
place the small piece of paper on top of the water in the center of the bowl.
Set the needle on top of the paper and gently move the paper to cause it to spin
slightly. Make sure there is no metal near by (does the table you are working on
have metal on it or under it?) Also make sure the magnet you used to magnetize
the needle is at least 2 feet away from the bowl. If the paper gets stuck to the
side of the bowl, gently nudge it toward the center again.
Now, wait. What is happening? When the needle and paper have stopped moving completely, the sharp end of the needle is pointing north. You can prove this compass is really pointing north by setting a manufactured compass nearby. Don't set the two compasses too close to each other because they will interfere with each other
Activity: Map Your Neighborhood
I suggest doing this activity if you plan on doing the lesson on longitude and latitude.
Have your child draw a simple map of their street or neighborhood. Use symbols and create a legend to show what each of the symbols mean. This is what we did. We went on a walk around our neighborhood with some sketch paper. We counted how many houses were on each street that we were going to put in our map. We noted some landmarks that we wanted to add to our map, such as the barn and hayfield across the street and the railroad track in our neighborhood. When we got home we decided which way was north and started making our map of our neighborhood. If you don’t have a compass and are not sure which way is north in your neighborhood think of where the sun rises and sets each day and use that as a guide to make your map.
Prow: the forepart of a ship or boat; bow
Gunwale: The upper edge of the side of a vessel
Tread: to maintain the body erect in the water with the head above the surface usually by a pumping up-and-down movement of the legs and sometimes the arms.
Mast: a spar or structure rising above the hull and upper portions of a ship or boat to hold sails, spars, rigging, booms, signals, etc., at some point on the fore-and-aft line, as a foremast or mainmast.
the line or circle that forms the apparent
boundary between earth and sky.
Stern: the after part of a vessel (often opposed to stem)., the back or rear of anything.
Mutiny: Open rebelLion against constituted authority, especially rebelLion of sailors against superior officers
A cinquain is a type of poem that uses describing words and action words. It has five lines that follows the pattern:
Moving, rage, waves
So fun to play
Temperamental, adventurous, seeking
Glad he found it
One thing that helped moved Columbus’s ship was the wind. They were very dependent on the wind. Wind also affects the waves in the ocean. Waves are caused by the winds that blow across the surface of the ocean. They exist only on the water’s surface. The water below the first few hundred feet is calm. Waves begin as ripples caused by wind blowing over water. The wind catches the ripples and whips them up into waves. The size and power of a wave depends on the speed of the wind, and the distance and length of time the wind has blown over the waters.
The highest part of a wave is its crest the lowest part is its trough. A wave’s height is measured from crest to trough.
Swells in the Pacific Ocean are larger then those of the Atlantic because they can build up over a greater distance.
Pour water into a bowl until the bowl is filled to the top then blow across the
surface of the water. Your breath will make ripples that will move away
from you over the water.
Make waves in a soda bottle
2 liter soda bottles with lids
white drawing paper
9 x13 inch baking pan
Fill the pan about half full with water. Pretend to be the wind and make waves.
Now fill your soda bottles half full with water. Add one to three drops of food coloring. Cap your bottle and lay it on its side. Gently tip the bottle from side to side.
Now add some oil to your bottle of water to see what happens. Recap and tip the bottle. Make sure all air bubbles have been removed. Gently tip the bottle from side to side compare what happens.
The drawings in the book look like sketches. Have your child sketch Columbus’s ships and label the parts.
Lesson 4: October 5th – October 10th (Pg 25-33)
forgive us our debts,
as we forgive our debtors.”
Discuss debts and debtors with your student. If he has ever borrowed money from you, you will be able to explain it a bit easier. In this verse, I believe the debt is sin—we fall short of God’s glory thus we owe a debt to God…a debt that we can never pay, but that Christ paid for us. Your student can do a few different things in his journal today—
God for the sin debt that has been forgiven
2. Repent of certain sins that your student needs to ask forgiveness for
3. Release certain people for the things they have done that have caused hurt in our own lives. This may lead you into a discussion of forgiveness with your student.
A Hemisphere is exactly one half of a sphere. Take a basketball or anything round and cover it with wrapping paper. Turn the paper inside out so it will be clear. Paint the paper to resemble a globe. Draw a black line around the center of the globe to illustrate the equator. Explain that we divide our world into hemispheres. Point out that every thing above the equator is the northern hemisphere and everything below the equator is the southern hemisphere. Show your child the line that runs from the North Pole to the South Pole. This is referred to the Prime Meridian. Explain that this is the point that divides the globe between the Western and Eastern Hemisphere. Everything to the left is the Western and everything to the right is the Eastern Hemisphere. You could have your child draw the Prime Meridian from the top point of his/her globe down to the bottom point and show them the Western and Eastern Hemisphere. If you want you could have your child label all the Hemispheres on his/her globe.
Forecastle: The section of the upper deck of a ship located at the bow forward of the foremast
Cabin: an enclosed space for more or less temporary occupancy
Deck: a floor like surface wholly or partially occupying one level of a hull, superstructure, or deckhouse, generally cambered, and often serving as a member for strengthening the structure of a vessel.
Ports: A place on a waterway with facilities for loading and unloading ships
Shrouds: One of a set of ropes or wire cables stretched from the masthead to the sides of a vessel to support the mast
Sails: A piece of fabric sewn together and fitted to the spars and rigging of a vessel so as to convert the force of the wind into forward motion of the vessel
Columbus’s name means Christ-bearer. Look up the meaning of the names of each person in your family. Discuss why you named your child the name you did.
The shore is the place where the ocean meets the land. Sometimes the water comes way up on the shore, and sometimes it stays farther out. Twice a day, every day, in a regular pattern, the level of the ocean rises and falls as it meets the shore. These periodic rises and falls are called tides. Isaac Newton was the first person to scientifically explain tides. They are caused by the gravitational interaction between the Earth and the moon. The gravitational attraction of the moon causes the oceans to bulge out in the direction of the moon. Since the earth is also being pulled toward the moon another bulge occurs on the opposite side. Two tides occur each day because the earth is rotating while all of this is occurring.
Although the magnitude of the moon’s effect is about twice that of the sun, the sun also exerts a gravitational force on ocean waters. Depending upon the positions of the sun and moon relative to the Earth, the sun’s gravity may enhance or diminish the tidal effect caused by the moon.
Spring tides: This has nothing to do with the season spring. When the sun and moon are aligned – at the time of full moon or new moon – their gravitational forces act in the same direction and produce more pronounced high and low tides.
Neap tides: When the sun and moon are at right angles relative to the Earth, the gravitational force of the sun partially cancels out the gravitational force of the moon. The result is less pronounced high and low tides.
Why is it important to know about high and low tides?
Low tides may prevent ships from entering harbors.
High tides may make it impossible for ships to pass beneath bridges.
Tidal currents may increase the speed of a vessel, or may carry it into dangerous waters.
Fishermen have learned that catches our much larger during certain portions of the tidal cycle
Make up some math problems to find the distance traveled. (Distance divided by speed equals time; distance divided by time equals speed) Columbus only recorded 144 miles but they had really traveled 180 miles. How many more had they really traveled?
Lesson 5: October 11th – October 23rd (Pg 33-43)
lead us not into temptation,
but deliver us from evil”
What is temptation?
Your student may want to list some sins that he struggles with. Be the example by acknowledging your own sins and what your struggles are. I know I have to go to God on a daily basis and ask him to deliver me from certain evils of my humanity.
Let your student know that God is an ever present help! Whatever it is that he struggles with (hitting his sister, being disrespectful to you, etc.), God will be faithful and help. Use the journal today to ask for protection from slipping into sin. (Oh, that we would train our children to go to God when they are tempted!).
Longitudinal and Latitudinal lines
Lines of latitude, also called parallels, and lines of longitude, also called meridians help you to determine the position of a place. Lines of latitude and longitude are imaginary like the equator. Latitude lines extend east and west. Longitude lines extend from the North Pole to the South Pole. They are measured in degrees.
Make a copy of the map that your child drew of their neighborhood. Fold the paper accordion style both vertical and horizontal. On each horizontal line place an alphabet letter. On each vertical line place a number. Trace the lines. Show your child how to locate a spot on his/her map by using the letter and the number grid. Come up with several points for your child to locate. Have them tell you what item is located at that point. Explain that the lines on his/her map are similar to longitudinal and latitudinal lines. Have him/her find the state they live in using the longitudinal and latitudinal degrees.
Tierra: Spanish for dry land, ground
Dugouts: a boat made by hollowing out a log
Salve Regina: On page 34 it says, at sunset, I led the prayers and the men sang the Salve Regina. Which is: a prayer in the form of a hymn to the Virgin Mary
Sign language is a form of communication. Teach your child the alphabet in sign language. Practice your spelling words this week by signing them.
how to sign different words/letters
Lord’s Prayer being signed.
The water in the ocean moves all the time - we call these moving waters ocean currents. The ocean’s currents are great streams that move in four different ways – on the surface, under the surface, upward, and downward. There are a number of ocean currents found around the Earth. Currents are caused by differences in temperature, differences in salinity, and by wind. The main cause of the ocean’s surface currents is the wind that blows around the earth at the equator.
The sun warms the earth unevenly. Most of the heat is at the equator. Winds and currents absorb heat in equatorial regions and lose it, little by little, as they more toward cooler regions. Steady winds, which blow most of the time cause surface currents in the ocean. The spinning motion of the earth causes the currents to veer from their paths. North of the equator they curve to the right, south of it to the left.
Trade winds: are the nearly constant easterly winds that dominate most of the tropics and subtropics throughout the world, blowing mainly from the northeast in the Northern Hemisphere, and from the southeast in the Southern Hemisphere.
Equatorial Currents: are the main currents that the trade winds create. They flow westward in two streams, one north to the equator and one south of it.
Labrador Current: flow toward the equator from the icy waters around the Poles.
Gulf Stream: runs, from the Gulf of Mexico, up the coast of Florida, and then north up the coast of the US as far as North Carolina before it crosses the Atlantic Ocean. The water in the Gulf Stream is warmer than the ocean it flows through. The water is so warm that it melts icebergs floating southward from the Polar Regions. It warms the land it passes too. England, for example, has mild winters because the Gulf Stream passes close to its coat. But when the warm air over the Gulf Stream meets very cold air coming down from the North Pole, severe fog occurs. This is why England’s climate is so foggy.
Captains pay close attention to currents because they can carry you way off course. Captains especially pay close attention to the Gulf Stream.
Geometry: Review what you've studied thus far.
Lesson 6: October 29th – November 25th (Pg 43-50)
For thine is the kingdom,
and the power, and the glory,
for ever. Amen.
If you use the NIV, you won’t have this lesson…this phrase is omitted
I think this phrase gives us another opportunity to praise and thank God for who He is (refer back to Lesson 1) and what He has done for us.
Encourage your student to make a praise and worship list to write in his journal today and then to pray to God and include all the items on His list.
If you do not already have a timeline this would be a great time to start one. We have a timeline notebook that we made. We started with putting in information for our family. The first entry we put in it was the day my husband and I got married then the birth of each of our children. After this we added birth/deaths of other relatives. Now we use this same timeline notebook to add people/events that we learn about. Every time we add something we look to see which of our family members would have been around during that time if we have gone back that far. Its fun to wonder what they thought about this or to talk about if they even knew about it. It’s also neat to see how our family relates to history.
Following is some information, which seems to be supported as facts, which I have complied about Columbus.
Christopher Columbus, whose name means Christ-bearer, was born in 1451 in Genoa, Italy. He was the oldest of five children and the son of a wool weaver. He was 14 years old the first time he went to sea.
During the 1400’s people wanted to travel East to the Indies to trade with them however, Christopher wanted to travel west to get to the East. He thought it would be faster. After receiving many no’s from people to support his voyage Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand finally agreed to pay for his trip.
In 1492 he left Palos, Spain with 89 men and 3 ships. The names of the ships were Santa Maria, Nina, and Pinta. After leaving Palos they had to stop in the Canary Islands for repairs that they believed were done on purpose. Once repairs were made they set sail on September 6, 1492. The ships headed west across the Atlantic Ocean going where no one had ever gone before. The crew became afraid when they could no longer see land. In order to comfort the crew Columbus began to keep two logs. One the crew saw and one then did not. The one the crew saw said they were closer to home then they really were.
On October 11, 1492 they found an island. Columbus thought he had reached the Indies so the people that were native to the land he called Indians. The natives called the island Guanahani but, Columbus claimed the land for Spain and renamed it San Salvador. When he left he took some natives with him.
Columbus continued with his travels. He sailed south to find Japan. He found a large island that the native people called Cuba. On December 6 he sailed east and found another island that he named Hispaniola. Today, Haiti and the Dominican Republic make up this island.
On Christmas Eve while he was still at Hispaniola (Haiti) The Santa Maria wrecked. The helmsmen left a ship boy in charge while everyone else slept. The ship boy’s name was Pedro. While Pedro was steering the ship ran into a reef and was destroyed. The Indians helped them save and unload their items form the Santa Maria. The Indians gave Columbus a gift of a mask that was made of gold after the wreck.
There were to many people to return to Spain on the one ship that remained so Columbus decided to leave some behind. (The other ship had taken off on its own.) He left some behind to begin a settlement and he called it LA NAVIDAD, which in Spanish means Christmas.
They left Hispaniola in January and reached Spain in March. When they arrived they were received with honors.
On his second voyage he found the settlement he had left behind was gone. They had all been killed. This time they settled a little farther up Haiti and Columbus named it Isabella. In addition to leaving the people they also brought livestock. The settlement was to farm the land.
Columbus returned two more times but things did not go as well as before. On one of these trips he found Indians that were carnivores around the Caribbean Islands and he was no longer wanted with the settlement. On the third journey he was arrested and brought back to Spain in chains. On his last journey the seas were rougher then ever and he became very sick with gout and fever. On his final journey he did finally find a gold mine but, because of the rough seas and the fact that they were thrown off course he was not sure he could ever find the spot again. Not without much trouble anyway.
of his voyages he believed he had reached the Indies. Part of the area he
explored is still referred to as the West Indies. From what I have read I
do not believe he ever really knew he had actually found the new world.
**I recommended reading a biography of Christopher Columbus to your child or have them read one.**
The Light and the Glory for Children by Peter Marshall and David Manuel PG 13-32
America’s Providential History by Beliles and McDowell PG 45
Columbus by D’ Aulaire
The World of Columbus and Sons by Genevieve Foster
the Dream by Peter
Sis Beautifully illustrated.
Another shorter recount of Christopher Columbus birth, growing up, and voyage. Again I recommend that parents preview the book. There are some pictures of
weird looking sea creatures. (That people believed in at this time.)
Where Do You Think You’re Going, Christopher Columbus? By Jean Fritz
Christopher Columbus by Piero Ventura
The Columbus Story by Alice Dagliesch
A Man Named Columbus by Gertrude Norman
Encounter byJane Yolen
Bonnets: A strip of canvas laced to a fore-and-aft sail to increase sail area
Topsail: a sail, or either of a pair of sails, set immediately above the lowermost sail of a mast and supported by a topmast
Fore: situated at or toward the bow of a vessel; forward
Spritsail: A quadrilateral sail extended by a spar running diagonally to the sail's peak
Bowspirt: a spar projecting from the upper end of the bow of a sailing vessel, for holding the tacks of various jibs or stays and often supporting a jib boom
rock, sandbar, or other feature lying beneath
the surface of the water yet shallow enough to be a hazard to ships
Hull: body of a ship or boat
1. Do a character sketch of Columbus or have your student write a brief biography of Columbus.
2. Have your child write a story from the point of view of the natives. Pretend they are the natives what do you see? How do you feel? The name of the Native Americans that met Columbus was the Tainos. At first the Native Americans were very generous with their belongings. However, Columbus forced some Indians onto their boat to take back to Spain. How do you think that made the Natives feel?
Layers of the Ocean
It seems that almost everywhere you look the layers of the ocean have many different names. Even the depths of the layers vary. One thing that does seem to be the same is that the ocean has been divided into 5 layers or zones.
Zone or The Open Ocean or Epipelagic Zone
This is the top layer of the ocean. The water is very warm because this is where the sun hits. It is usually a clear layer of open ocean where sunlight penetrates. It goes down about 600 feet. Most of the plants and animals live in this zone. This is were you will find most sharks although there is some sharks that live near the ocean floor.
Zone or the Midwater or Mesopalaziz Zone
This area of the ocean is between about 600-3,300 feet. Because, there is less light here, it gives it a “twilight” appearance and the temperature can be as low as 41 degrees F. There are no plants in this zone and there are fewer animals. Some animals that live in this zone are: Lantern fish, rattalk fish, hatched fish, and some types of jellyfish. It is in this zone that we begin to see the twinkling lights of bioluminescent creatures.
or the Midnight Zone or Bathypelagic Zone
This area of the ocean is between about 3,300 – 13, 200 feet. It is pitch black in the midnight zone the only visible light is the light, which the creatures themselves produce. The temperature in this zone is about 35 degrees F. There is not much food in this zone. Most of the animals that live in this zone are black or red because of the lack of light. Some of the living things in this zone are: angler fish, tripod fish, sea cucumber, snipe eel, opposom shrimp, black swallower, and vampire squid.
This area of the ocean is about 13,200 – 19,800 feet. Abyss comes from a Greek word meaning no bottom. The temperature is near freezing and not many animals are at this level. The mud found here is made from the skeletons of other small sea animas and the mud can be more than a mile thick. Some animals found in this area are: basket stars and tiny squids
or Hadalpelagic Zone
This area of the ocean is about 19,800 – 32,800 feet.
Only animals that are adapted to the freezing water can survive in this layer, such as starfish and tubeworms.
These books also discuss the zones:
AiG's The Aquarium Guide
Frank Sherwin's The Ocean Book
Vertex: point where two sides meet. Two or more of these points are called vertices.
A triangle is a three sided figure how many corners or vertices does it have?
A quadrilateral is a four sided figure how many corners or vertices does it have?
What about a circle how many corners or vertices does it have? Why or Why not?
Lesson 7: December 3rd - December 25th (Pg 50-60)
of the journal pages can be used for your student to spend personal time with
the Lord each day. Encourage him to incorporate some of the things he has
learned from The Lord’s Prayer—worship/praise, asking requests according to
God’s will, asking for guard against evil, thanking God for our daily needs
being met, etc.
I hope you and your student will grow together in your walk with God as you complete this project. If you have enjoyed it, consider buying journals to record prayers in each day.
More about Columbus
· Trace the routes of Columbus.
· Review some of your map skills
1. Give your child the Longitudinal and Latitudinal numbers for some of the places Columbus had discovered and see if they can find it on a globe.
2. What hemisphere are these places in?
3. Have them verbally explain the route of Columbus using directional terms.
· Have your child create a timeline of Columbus. Use information from Pedro’s Journal and the biography you read.
EX: born 1451 in Italy, 1465 hired as a cabin boy, 1476 Columbus
became a Portuguese citizen and married Felipa, 1484 worked with his
brother in Portugal who made maps, etc….
Haiku Poetry Writing
Write and illustrate a haiku poem about the ocean and/or some of the other types of bodies of water. A haiku is a Japanese poem usually about nature. It contains three lines that do not usually rhyme. It line has a certain number of syllables in it.
The number of words do not matter only the number of syllables.
Line 1: five syllables ~ tells what the poem is about
Line 2: seven syllables ~ describes or tells about
Line 3: five syllables ~ tells again what the poem is about
Here is an example my children did:
The great big ocean
Full of fun, deep, wide, and wet
The big blue ocean
What does the ocean floor look like?
We call the bottom of the ocean the ocean floor. Once scientists were able to map the ocean floor, they discovered something surprising. The bottom of the ocean was not a flat, sandy plain stretching between the continents, as many people once thought. In fact, the ocean floor was rocky and dramatically uneven. Many previously unknown features of the seafloor were discovered. You can think of the ocean floor as a landscape of mountains, valley, ridges, volcanoes and trenches, stretching out for thousands of miles underwater.
The tallest mountains and deepest canyons are actually found in the ocean. If placed side by side, the Hawaiian Islands of the Pacific Ocean would tower over Mt. Everest. The Pacific is also home to the deepest trench on the Earth, the Mariana Trench. It is seven times the depth of the Grand Canyon. It is harder to explore the ocean floor then it is to explore land. Conditions are very harsh in the deep ocean. First, it is dark since sunlight does not penetrate far below the surface. Second, the water is cold, only a few degrees above freezing. Finally, there is tremendous pressure due to the mass of the water pushing down from above. Because of the darkness, cold, and extreme pressure, scientists have had to develop technology to enable them to study the deep ocean floor. That technology includes sonar, scuba, submersibles, satellites, remote underwater manipulators, and gravity mapping.
Extending out from a continent's edge is a gently sloping, shallow area called the continental shelf. At the edge of the shelf, the ocean floor drops off in a steep incline called the continental slope. The continental slope marks the true edge of the continent, where the rock that makes up the continent stops and the rock of the ocean floor begins. Beyond this slope is the abyssal plain, a smooth and nearly flat area of the ocean floor. In some places, deep, steep-sided canyons called trenches cut into the abyssal plain. A continuous range of mountains called the mid-ocean ridge winds around Earth. There are mountains on the abyssal plain, too. Some reach above the ocean surface to form volcanic islands.
Continental shelf: the edge of a continent that is covered by water, usually to a maximum depth of about 650 feet. Kelp forests, seagrass meadows, and some coral reefs are found on the shallower parts of continental shelves. These shallow areas are the sea’s richest regions. Rivers carry loads of nutrients into shelf waters from the land. Deep ocean currents rising to the surface bring other nutrients
Most of the sea life takes place in the first couple hundred feet. Below this depth it is too dark, cold and murky for much to happen.
Continental slope: The descent from the continental shelf to the ocean bottom
Abyssal plain: flat or very gently sloping areas of the deep ocean basin floor
Trenches: The oceanic trenches are depressions of the sea floor. They are also the deepest parts of the ocean floor.
Mid-ocean ridge: underwater mountain range
Volcanic islands: Islands that arise from volcanoes
Deep–sea vent: a place on the ocean floor where hot water seeps into the ocean. Most vents are located where the earth’s tectonic plates are spreading apart. Many are surrounded by life-forms that live nowhere else.
Activity: make a diorama of the ocean floor.
Then draw a triangle inside the pentagon.
Then draw a pentagon inside it.
Then draw a quadrilateral inside the pentagon.
Then draw a triangle inside the quadrilateral
Lesson 8: December 27th – January 16h (Pg 60-72)
Columbus Day is celebrated in the USA on the second Monday in October to honor Christopher Columbus’s first voyage to American in 1492.
The first Columbus Day celebration took place in New York City in 1792. But it took another 100 years before a national celebration was held in 1892. The Knights of Columbus, a Roman Catholic Society for men, petitioned state legislatures several times to declare October 12 a legal holiday. It wasn’t until 1901 that New York City became the first city to make Columbus Day a holiday. In 1892 President Benjamin Harrison made a commutative proclamation. In 1905, Colorado became the first state to observe Columbus Day. Since 1920, people or states in some manner have celebrated Columbus Day annually. October 12 wan not proclaimed Columbus Day until 1937 – by President Franklin Roosevelt.
In 1968, President Lyndon Johnson signed a law making the second Monday in October a Federal holiday to honor Christopher Columbus.
Columbus Day is a controversial holiday in the United States. Some see Columbus
as a hero and others see him as a villain.
Discuss this with your children. If you have more then one child you could do a debate - One child for and one against.
Book suggestion: Columbus Day by Vicki Liestman – recounts Columbus' life and voyage. Explains why we celebrate Columbus Day.
Have your child write a letter to a family member back home telling them of their journey so far with Christopher Columbus. Remember what job they applied for – have them write the letter from that point of view. Telling their family all that they have had to do as well as including some facts that they have learned.
Deep Sea Creatures
During the time of Columbus they believed in Sea Monsters. What strange creatures really live in the abyss or trenches of the ocean?
Fish that live in this zone have a hard time finding food. Many live of food that has drifted down. Some hunt one another. Some of these animals of the abyss have extra-large mouths. They swim with their mouths open. Many of the animals in these zones give off their own light. Their light is what they use to lure their prey.
Viper fish have hinged jaws that swing far apart. They can swallow prey twice their size. Vipers have lights inside of their mouth.
The female angler fish has a long rod that hangs from her head like a fishing pole. On the end of the “pole” is a light to attract prey.
Flashlight fish have two see-through bags under their eyes where the glowing germs live.
The gulper eel is almost all mouth with a long, thin tail.
Sea Pens are not one animal but many individual animals living together. If anything touches it, the pen lights up and glows.
A small number of creatures do not swim or move about. Instead, they stay in one place on the ocean floor. They wait for their food to come to them, which is delivered by the flowing water. Some of these animals are: tubeworms and the sea pen. Tubeworms have long, thin bodies with bright red heads. They live inside white tubes, as tall as adult men, stuck to the ocean floor. The tubes are their protection. It protects them from enemies such as crabs. Tubeworms never eat they get all their food from germs that live in their bodies.
Explore more monsters of the deep
Dragons of the Deep book by Answers in Genesis
Heptagon: A heptagon is a figure with seven sides. Each side is a line segment.
heptagon has seven corners. A corner is a
so how many vertices does a heptagon have? 7
Octagon: An octagon is a figure with eight sides. Each side is a line segment. An octagon has eight corners. A corner is a vertex so how many vertices does an octagon have? 8
Lesson 9: January 28th – February 7th (Pg 72-75)
Do a little research on Spain (or Italy). Spain is where Columbus left from and the King and Queen of Spain paid for his trip. Italy is where Columbus was born.
First, have your child locate Spain on the map. What continent is it located in? (Europe) What body of water surrounds it on the East and South? (Mediterranean Sea) What is the name of the land to its West? (Portugal) How about the land to its Northeast? (France) What body of water is to the West of it? (Atlantic Ocean) The Canary Islands are part of Spain and since they were discussed in the story you might want to point them out to your child.
Give your child a blank printout of Spain or have them draw an outline of it. Have them label the areas you talked about above. You could also have them label the capital city, which is Madrid. You could also have them label the following rivers: Ebro, Duero, Tagus, Guadiana, and Guadalquivir.
Next, I usually give my children a blank printout of the Flag so they can color it. The flag of Spin has three stripes not equally in width. The top and bottom stripes are red. The middle stripe is yellow. On the yellow part is the national coat of arms, which shows the union between the old kingdoms.
Research options: Pick something that is interesting to you or your child about Spain and research it.
Queen Isabella I
This book gives a preview of what was happening in Spain prior to and during the time of Columbus’ journey. It gives another recount of Columbus request for exploration along with the history of Spain’s wars at the time. Good for historical reference and understanding more about World History.
Pedro and the crew sailed through a forest of seaweed. Seaweed can be green, red, or brown. It needs light to grow. This seaweed that they sailed through is called kelp. A forest of kelp in the ocean is as full of life as a forest on land. MilLions of big and little sea animals live in kelp forests. Many fish lay their eggs in the roots and branches of kelp.
Netflix has a DVD titled Beautiful Fish of the Kelp Forest you may want to view this.
A polygon is a closed plan figure made up of line segments. Polygon means many sides. Polygons are figures that ALWAYS have straight lines. Polygons can be regular or irregular.
Some Types of Polygons
Name of Shape
Number of sides
Number of Vertices
Lesson 10: February 13th – February 14th (Pg 76-81)
Marco Polo had a big influence on Columbus. He studied Polo’s writings and wanted to travel to the Indies because of what he had read of Marco Polo.
I recommended reading a bio of Marco Polo to your child or have them read one.
Marco Polo: His Notebook by Susan Roth
Marco Polo: A Journey Through China by Fiona MacDonald
Marco Polo by Charles Graves
Marco Polo by Gian Paola
Story of Marco Polo by Moah Brooks
· Trace the routes of Polo.
· Review some of your map skills
1. Give your child the Longitudinal and Latitudinal numbers for some of the places Polo explored and see if they can find it on a globe.
2. What hemisphere are these places in?
3. Have them verbally explain the route of Polo using directional terms.
Have your child create
a timeline of Polo. Have them add Polo to their time line.
The word acrostic if formed from the Greek word acros (outermost) and stichos (line of poetry). The acrostic is a poem where the first letter of each line forms a word when you read them looking downward. Complete an acrostic poem about Columbus.
1. Brainstorm about
Columbus using describing words. What did Columbus mean to us?
2. Using a word processing program, type the letters that will form your acrostic (The person's name.). Have someone show you how to change the color or the font. Make your first letters a different color than the rest of your poem. Also capitalize them and use the bold function.
3. Find or draw a picture of the person you described to illustrate your acrostic.
When traveling aboard a ship for many months, fresh food was a rarity. One of the greatest dangers to those aboard the ship was a disease called scurvy. Scurvy is an illness caused by inadequate intake of vitamin C and can be avoided with a diet of citrus fruits.
Symptoms of Scurvy:
Dark purplish spots on skin, especially lets
Spongy gums, often leading to tooth loss
How do you think explorers could have avoided this disease? How does our diet today avoid this disease? Some believe that King Henry VIII died because of scurvy. During that time, fresh fruit was considered to be a poor person’s food, and so the king did not eat fruit. Scurvy, in its final stages can produce madness, obesity, and open sores, all of which were present when Henry VIII died.
Clean water would have been another concern among explorers. How did they provide for the need for clean water? Columbus had barrels filled with fresh water. You should never drink ocean water.
This figure is an angle.
We call it angle ABC.
What is the point of intersection of the sides AB and BC of the angle ABC? B
What is the vertex of the angle ABC? B
Draw some more angles for you child and label them with different letters. Have the answer the following questions.
What do you call this angle?
What is the point of intersection of the sides ----- and ---- of the angle -----?
What is the vertex of the angle?
Crossing the Bar by Alfred Tennyson
A Sea-Song by Allan Cunningham
Sea-Fever by John Masefield
A Life on the Ocean Wave by Epes Sargent
Break, Break, Break by Alfred Tennyson
Tons of Columbus poetry